By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with fundamental examine and coaching adventure in North American arid lands, i've got continually chanced on the ecu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary creation, in the course of a survey path on international prehis tory, demonstrated that (for me, not less than) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named software varieties than any undergraduate should need to keep in mind. i didn't recognize a lot, yet I knew there have been larger issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any inspiration of pur suing examine on Stone Age Europe-that direction was once sufficient for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of progressive human adaptive swap. Iron ically, it all was once amenable to research utilizing exactly the similar types and analytical instruments i stopped up spending the higher a part of 20 years employing within the nice Basin of western North the US. again then, after all, few have been puzzling over the past due Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, category, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate path mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled below I on the job of gaining knowledge of those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he was once keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages should be hooked up as a part of higher local subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Additional info for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
A counterexample from Winterhalder's own work among the Cree is provided by fish, which may be much more efficient energy sources than moose at certain periods. Keene (1981) constructed an indirect measure that incorporates prey characteristics (including size, density, mobility, and aggregation size) as well as assumptions about technology. Mithen (1990) also devised an indirect measure using a number of variables, including prey size, aggregation size, density, pursuit cost, and processing cost, but the latter three of these variables were, in turn, calculated as functions of prey size.
3). Fig. 4 shows that the two climatic measures are strongly correlated: stations with highest average March temperatures (Karlsruhe, Freiburg, and Stuttgart in the Rhine lowlands and Neckar Valley) have few frost days, and those with lowest average temperatures (Oberstdorf in the Alpine foothills and Freudenstadt in the Black Forest) have the greatest number of frost days. Note, however, that stations in Oberschwaben (Ulm, Munich) have about as many frost days as Freudenstadt, despite having significantly higher average March temperatures.
As a consequence, during the late glacial and postglacial periods, Oberschwaben was dotted with lakes, bogs, and marshes in various stages of development. The lower, flatter portions of the floodplains of the Danube, Rhine , and some of their tributaries also contained extensive marshy areas. The vegetational history of this region during this time period is essentially one of reforestation and succession. At the last glacial maximum the area was an open steppe tundra with scant vegetation and extremely low animal biomass (Frenzel, 1983).
A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic by Michael A. Jochim