By Hector M Patmore
The oracle opposed to the King of Tyre, present in Ezekiel 28.12-19, is a tough textual content that encouraged various interpretations in past due Antiquity. for instance, based on one rabbinic culture the textual content talked about the 1st guy, Adam, whereas the Church Fathers present in a similar textual content an outline of the autumn of devil. This publication reviews the rabbinic resources, patristic literature, the Targum, and the traditional translations, and seeks to appreciate the explanations for the varied interpretation, the interplay among the exegetical traditions and the groups of interpreters, particularly among Jews and Christians, and the influence the categorical shape and wording of the textual content had at the formation and improvement of every interpretation.
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Extra resources for Adam, Satan, and the King of Tyre: The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity
There is no more obvious place for such a tradition to surface than in Ecclesiastes Rabbah. Another interpretation of Who is like the wise man? (Eccl 8:1): This is the First Man ( )אדם הראשוןof whom it is written, You were a seal of correctness (תכנית חותם אתהEzek 28:12). And who knows the interpretation ( )פשרof a thing? (Eccl 8:1), [this is] he who specified ( )פרשnames for all things. 10 Given the anthological nature of Ecclesiastes Rabbah and its tendency to draw on earlier compositions—being in essence a compendium of haggadic traditions arranged under heading of verses of Ecclesiastes, with little or no systematic program11—this is not surprising.
This technique, typical of rabbinic exegesis, is more evident in the traditions connected to Hiram, where multiple parallel texts are brought together because they are considered to be thematically linked by their tale of hubris leading to divine destruction. This interpretation relies on a typology in which Hiram, Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, and Pharaoh (or Joash) are of a type, and all four serve as the anti-type of the heroes of Israel: Abraham, Moses, David, Daniel, etc. The interpretative traditions of the rabbis consider the lament over the king of Tyre (Ezek 28:11–19) and the preceding oracle (Ezek 28:2–10) as one continuous whole.
On this basis Marcion rejected the Old Testament entirely and expunged from the New Testament any reference to the Old that implied that Jesus was related to this evil Demiurge. As an apparently wealthy and powerful man, Marcion’s ideas disseminated rapidly and his school quickly became a serious rival to the Catholic Church. Tertullian clearly felt Marcion’s ideas posed enough of a threat that they required a serious, reasoned, response. Tertullian knew Marcion only indirectly, so his Against Marcion is intended to counter the heresy of his followers, threatening the Church in Carthage.
Adam, Satan, and the King of Tyre: The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity by Hector M Patmore