By Kathryn Hinds
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Additional resources for Ancient Celts (Barbarians!)
Was it brought by large-scale invaders or smaller-scale settlers and traders? Did it reach Britain and Ireland independently, or travel first to Britain and then across to Ireland? And how thoroughly did British and Irish society become “celticized”? We are unlikely to ever have definite answers to these questions. But the evidence strongly suggests that the Celts had reached this western edge of Europe by around 600 BCE. There may have been multiple waves of settlement, or perhaps Celtic language and culture arrived in a more or less steady trickle and gradually soaked in.
This was how Tacitus thought Calgacus might have spoken of the Romans: “Pillagers of the world, they have exhausted the land by their indiscriminate plunder . . ” CELTIC SURVIVAL In all of Britain, only the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland— regarded as barren lands inhabited by wild tribes—remained free of Roman rule. But across the sea to the west, there was still one independent Celtic land. Ireland preserved ancient Celtic ways right up to the coming of Christianity in the fifth century.
Caesar reacted to the uprising by besieging and destroying many of the cities of central Gaul. Vercingetorix’s forces successfully countered with guerrilla warfare. Caesar, his own cavalry far outnumbered by Vercingetorix’s, brought in German horsemen as mercenaries. With their help he and his legions began to close in on the rebels. Vercingetorix and his army took refuge in Alesia, a fortified city atop a high hill [ life and loss in gaul 0000000000000000000000000 51 ] Rome did not have access to enough gold to make its own gold coins until Caesar conquered Gaul.
Ancient Celts (Barbarians!) by Kathryn Hinds