By Dr. rer. nat. Oliver Montenbruck, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Pfleger (auth.)
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90 deg) *) (* (* TAU hour angle (0 deg .. 360 deg) *) PHI geographical latitude (in deg) *) (* H altitude (in deg) (* AZ azimuth (0 deg .. 360 deg, counted S->W->I->E->S) *) (* *) (*---------------~-------------------------------------------------------*) PROCEDURE EQUHOR (DEC,TAU,PHI: REAL; VAR H,AZ: REAL); VAR CS_PHI,SI_PHI, CS_DEC,SI_DEC, CS_TAU, X,Y,Z, DUMMY: REAL; BEGIN CS_PHI:=CS(PHI); SI_PHI:=SI(PHI); CS_DEC:=CS(DEC); SI_DEC:=SI(DEC); CS_TAU:=CS(TAU); X:=CS_DEC*SI_PHI*CS_TAU - SN_DEC*CS_PHI; Y:=CS_DEC*SI(TAU); Z:=CS_DEC*CS_PHI*CS_TAU + SI_DEC*SI_PHI; POLAR (X,Y,Z, DUMMY,H,AZ) END; (*-----------------------------------------------------------------------*) (* HOREQU: conversion of horizontal to equatorial coordinates H,AZ azimuth and altitude (in deg) (* PHI geographical latitude (in deg) (* (* DEC declination (-90 deg ..
00000000 Entering S exits the program. =Help): S The values shown here may differ slightly depending on the particular Pascal compiler being used. 3. 1 The Observer's Horizon System The ecliptic and equatorial coordinates discussed so far are specified in terms of the mean plane of the Earth's orbit and of the position of the Earth's axis. Neither of these systems is particularly suitable, however, for an observer situated on the surface of the Earth. As such an observer (without being aware of it) takes part in the Earth's daily rotation, it appears as if the Sun, Moon, and stars follow large arcs across the sky from East to West during the course of a day, reaching their highest point above the horizon when they are on the meridian.
The equation is not, however, valid for every 48 3. Calculation of Rising and Setting Times possible value of h, but only for the altitudes that the star can actually attain. At a geographical latitude of cp = 50°, a star of declination IS = 60°, for example, is circumpolar, and can only be observed between h = 20° and h = 80°. If, for a predetermined altitude h, the value of 1cos 1"1 is consistently greater than 1, then the star will always be found either above or below that altitude. 11), the hour angle thus obtained being expressed in units of time (15° == Ih).
Astronomy on the Personal Computer by Dr. rer. nat. Oliver Montenbruck, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Pfleger (auth.)