By Ian Armit

ISBN-10: 0713489499

ISBN-13: 9780713489491

Who're the Celts? the place did they arrive from? Did the tribes of Iron Age Scotland particularly belong to a 'European group' of Celts? What did it suggest to be Celtic? during this attention-grabbing publication, the result of sleek archaeology are used, along prior unearths and the historic assets, to light up this crucial yet unusually ignored interval of Scottish historical past. during this re-creation of a vintage paintings, Ian Armit explores the prehistoric international of the Celts, from round a thousand BC to advert 500. totally illustrated with color images, maps and diagrams, the publication covers ethnicity and identification, lifestyle, Celtic artwork, the Druids, brochs, hillforts and Celtic struggle and the conflict with Rome.

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Tmolos in the center of Asia Minor, and farther south the mighty Meander cuts deeply into the mainland’s interior, emptying into the Mediterranean at Miletos. The southern tip of Asia Minor is dominated by the jutting semipeninsula of ancient Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) and the peninsula of Knidos, reaching out almost to touch Cos to the west. The milder climate and flatter surface of the land in Asia Minor allowed the eastern Greeks a few more agricultural activities than their western cousins.

The most basic means of determining relative chronology in archaeology is stratigraphy. Stratigraphy refers to the layers (strata) of discarded and buried materials under the surface of the land. Consider, for example, having a garden. Every year, you add new layers of soil and mulch before planting flowers or tomatoes, and these new layers cover over what had been on the surface the year before. A discarded gum wrapper, a penny, and an old shoelace get covered over by the new layer. The next year, a bottle cap gets covered over, along with a baseball card and a doll’s head.

The next great step in the discovery of the Aegean Bronze Age occurred in Crete, when Sir Arthur Evans, digging at the ancient capital of Knossos, discovered a civilization even earlier than the Mycenaean. In 1900, Evans found the remains of a society that he named Minoan after the legendary King Minos of Crete. This society showed many artistic similarities to the Mycenaean civilization. Yet the styles in Crete were even older than those in Greece, and, to Evans’s eyes, superior. So Evans came to the conclusion that this Minoan society was older than the Mycenaean; that at one point early in history these Minoans actually controlled the mainland, holding suzerainty over the Mycenaeans; and that it was only a grand-scale volcanic eruption that brought an end to their brilliant society and allowed the northern “barbarians” to take over Crete.

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Celtic Scotland by Ian Armit

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