By Lars Landner (auth.), Dr. Lars Landner (eds.)
Hazard evaluation of a compound (xenobiotic) discharged to the aquatic surroundings calls for info on either publicity and results to varied parts of the atmosphere. The multitude of ecological gradients within the Baltic Sea is used as a historical past instance for discussing the complexity of the problem and the necessity for brand new methods. for that reason, this e-book makes an attempt to move past the simplistic, standardized non permanent laboratory checks characteristically used as a foundation for possibility evaluation of chemical compounds, and provides robust emphasis to the translation of ecotoxicological information of their actual, ecological context, declaring the necessity to contemplate the usual mortality distribution of the inhabitants lower than research, the function of keystone species and of species with huge ecological niches as opposed to people with slim, really good niches.
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Extra info for Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment: Advanced Hazard Assessment
1980; see Weis and Weis 1983 for a review). k Changes in dominating species in polluted areas (organic enrichment) along salinity gradients have been discussed by several authors (Bagge 1969; Lepplikoski 1975 a; Landner et al. 1977b; Pearson and Rosenberg 1978); in the Baltic the most obvious change is that marine (euryhaline) opportunistic polychaetes predominating in fully marine environments along the Swedish west coast are replaced by freshwater oligochaetes (crustaceans and bivalves largely by chironomid larvae) in polluted areas in the innermost Bothnian Bay (salinity 0-3 ppt), and in coastal inlets along the entire Baltic gradient.
Comparative ecotoxicological studies made on groups of organisms (species or their popullations) of different "ecological origin" (marine, freshwater and brackish water) are urgently needed within the salinity range of the Baltic Sea. The transition from a marine Ecosystem Variability and Gradients 29 assemblage in the south and in deeper water layers, where the Arctic zoogeographical element also constitutes a considerable element (Leppakoski 1975 a), to communities more and more dominated by species of freshwater origin in the north and in near-surface waters along the main salinity gradients is well known and logical.
In the sea this is of significance only in coastal waters and close to the point source of the pollutants. It is probably more common that organisms are pulse-exposed for hydrographical reasons (such as tidal currents along oceanic coasts or, in the Baltic, currents of various directions caused by changes in air pressure influencing the water level, or wind-induced currents; periodic turnover of water layers in stratified bodies of water; other convections, e. , upwelling phenomena). A more complete overview of environmental factors modifying toxicity is to be found in Levin et al.
Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment: Advanced Hazard Assessment by Lars Landner (auth.), Dr. Lars Landner (eds.)