By B. Velde
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Extra resources for Clays and Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Systems
1 - Silica The forms of Si02 found in sediments and sedimentary rocks are quite varied but those which could be suspected of near surface origin are generally as follows: quartz, chalcedony, opal, amorphous gels and ionic forms in solution. Natural occurrences indicate that the solid forms of silica precipitate which has crystallized after the time of initial deposition (Siever, 1962). The problem critical to an analysis of the phase relations of silicates is the determination of the stable or the most currently found form of Si02 in the various clay mineral environments.
One is forced more or less to ignore the importance of dolomite at present. This does not mean that it can be ultimately ex- cluded from a complete discussion of clay mineral stability. 1 - Silica The forms of Si02 found in sediments and sedimentary rocks are quite varied but those which could be suspected of near surface origin are generally as follows: quartz, chalcedony, opal, amorphous gels and ionic forms in solution. Natural occurrences indicate that the solid forms of silica precipitate which has crystallized after the time of initial deposition (Siever, 1962).
Depth-temperature coordinates of apparent kaolinite upper stability in various pelitic rock sequences of Tertiary or younger age in deeply buried sediments. D = Dunoyer de Segonzac (1969); B = Browne and Ellis (1970); M = Muffler and White (1969); P = Perry and Hower (1970); S = Steiner (1968). Arrow indicates that kaolinite is stable to the greatost depth in the sequence. (Burnham, 1962; Keller and Hanson, 1968; Rose, 1970; Lowell and Guilbert, 1970; Keller, 1963). These studies indicate that kaolinite can be formed by hydrothermal alteration at the surface as well as to depths of several kilometers.
Clays and Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Systems by B. Velde