By Claus F.K. Diessel
The writer provides examples of coal deposits assorted continents: from the ecu Carboniferous and the Permian Gondwana series of Australia. The natural and petrographic composition of the coal content material of palaeo-environmentally good outlined teams of sediments enable the discrimination of 2 coal facies indices as compatible symptoms for targeted settings. Combining the analytical equipment of coal petrography, sedimentology and series stratigraphy an built-in view of coal formation is attained.
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Extra resources for Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems
1. View of a Sphagnum bog in northern Scotland with water-filled depressions and growth of Eriophorum and Erica (in foreground) Biochemical Coalification 45 of the raised bog one would expect it to be subjected more frequently to dry conditions rather than wet ones. Indeed, many bog plants display a xeromorphic habit in response to occasional drying, yet, water-filled depressions are a common feature of the bog surface (Fig. 1). As has been discussed by Styan and Bustin (l983a, b), the ponds and lakes on the surface of the raised bogs occurring on the alluvial and upper delta plain of the Fraser River (British Columbia) are genetically related to periods of dryness which effect the most elevated portions of the bog more than other parts.
Fig. 13. Composite photomicrograph showing, from top to bottom, increasing stages in the transformation of leaf tissue (mesophyll) into semifusinite. All examples are from high volatile bituminous coal from the Gunnedah Basin, New South Wales. g. Sunda Sea in Southeast Asia). The influx of even moderate amounts of sediments into shallow water causes marine regression and build-up of coastal marshes and swamps. Only 30000 years ago, when during the Pleistocene Epoch much sea water was locked in the greatly increased polar ice caps and mountain glaciers, the concomitant lowering of the sea level by approximately 100 m shifted strandlines much closer to the edges of the shelf break.
The NjS ratio is likewise an indicator of the degree of plant decomposition. A high ratio suggests considerable surface degradation and advanced tissue decay whereby, once again, the different preservation potentials of different plants growing in similar circumstances will affect its numerical value. Both ratios are thus not only affected by the physical and biochemical conditions of peat formation but also by the kind of flora that is converted into peat. This is an important aspect which will be further discussed in Chaps.
Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems by Claus F.K. Diessel