By Andrew Gross

ISBN-10: 9004152849

ISBN-13: 9789004152847

This ebook argues that Aramaic scribes from antiquity drew upon a standard felony culture. It identifies the precise components that shape the center of this custom and lines their antecedents in the cuneiform list.

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150 Podany 2002:155–69. For editions of the texts that have been published to date, see Podany 2002:75–153 and Rouault 1979; 1984. 151 The expression “protection clause” is adopted from Podany 2002:162. 152 Podany 2002:166–67. 153 Pardee 1997:264. Márquez Rowe 2003b:719. 154 Márquez Rowe 1999:391, 394–402. This total includes documents related to private, domestic affairs; another one hundred tablets concern international affairs of government. 40 CHAPTER ONE small handful of these legal documents were composed in the local Ugaritic language, most of them are written in Akkadian.

Let us begin with an outline of the main elements of the Aramaic sale formulary, followed by a more detailed explanation of each element. Items in parentheses do not occur in every corpus. DATE (AND PLACE) OPERATIVE SECTION • Declaration of Sale • Property Description • Sale Price • Acknowledgment of Receipt • (Satisfaction Clause) • (Completion Clauses) INVESTITURE CLAUSE CONTINGENCY CLAUSES • (No-Contest and Penalty Clauses) • Warranty Clause • (Document Exchange) SIGNATURES AND WITNESSES With the exception of the Wadi ed-Daliyeh papyri, Aramaic deeds of conveyance are formulated as first-person declarations from the perspective of the alienor.

By the 7th century BCE, however, the latter formulary was being used in practically all Neo-Assyrian deeds of sale. One key element of this formulary is the transfer clause, an element also known from Middle Assyrian deeds of sale. 159 The form and function of the transfer clause and the Neo-Assyrian sale formulary in general are considered in more detail below. 160 155 On deeds of sale from Ugarit, see Haase 1967; Kienast 1976–80:532–37; and Márquez Rowe 1999, 2006. 156 Radner 1997:317; 2003:884.

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Continuity and Innovation in the Aramaic Legal Tradition by Andrew Gross

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