By Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz

Preface to the 1st .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have continuously been intere ted in
errors produced by way of second-language beginners, both of their speech or
writing or either. in reality, newbies' mistakes were the topic of
extensive research and heated controveL y for really a protracted time.
There were significant ways to the examine of learner ' mistakes .
namely Contrasti ve research and blunder Analysis.
The author's imperative goal in scripting this e-book has been to
provide a textual content for the Contrasti\'c and blunder research direction now
widely taught on the uni versity point in Iran. The formerly used
material for this direction didn't hide many points of blunders Analy i
which are handled within the current ebook. The booklet can also be meant to
provide training academics with insights into the character and kinds of
errors, with which they must deal of their day-by-day profes ional life.
The fabric during this ebook is predicated at the author's lectures on
Contrastive and mistake research at significant universities in Tehran. It has
been labored out over a number of years and has confirmed to be satisfactory
and winning. makes an attempt were made to provide the material
systematically. it truly is strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the educating and interpreting of the cloth delicate and easy.
It is was hoping that this booklet, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive angle in the direction of error, either at the a part of educators and

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Sample text

At this stage, the analyst has to decide what to compare with what. Linguistic features of the two languages are compared on three levels: form, meaning, and distribution of forms. It needs to be pointed out that in some texts companson and juxtaposition have been treated as two distinct steps, but as Yarmohammadi (2009) has noted, trying to keep them separate " imposes some sort of redundancy and unnaturalness on the statements" (p. 36). 4. Prediction Having described and compared certain features across languages, the analyst can make predictions about difficulties learners may face in acquiring the second language.

This principle works in the n1ajority of cases; however, some languages may require the use of alternative models for their description. Of course, this is a controversial theoretical issue and it is beyond the scope of the present textbook. For further details, interested readers can consult James ( 1980, Chapter 4). 3. Comparison When the description of subsystems of the two languages is complete the job of the analyst is to compare and contrast the two systems by juxtaposing features of the two languages in order to find similarities and differences between them.

Description After the selection of certain linguistic items, structures or rules, the linguist or language teacher, should explicitly describe the two languages in question. Scientific description has been the core of Chapter I - Fundamental Issues in Contrasth•e Analysis 15 contrastive analysis and the proponents of this theory have always put emphasis on parallel description of the two languages. By parallel description it is implied that the two languages should be described through the same linguistic model or framework.

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Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis by Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz

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