By Alan Holden

ISBN-10: 0262580500

ISBN-13: 9780262580502

ISBN-10: 0585359660

ISBN-13: 9780585359663

This truly illustrated clarification the elemental ideas of crystals may well be used as a textual content or supplementary sourcebook through high-school scholars (for which it was once initially written), scholars on the junior university or undergraduate point, or the final reader with an curiosity in technological know-how.

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Losing some of its components in this way, the molten mass changes character: there are more substances with low melting points left. The mass of magma, still percolating up, may transport with it some crystals already formed. Finally what is left is mainly water, melting at a low temperature, carrying silica, silicates, and any salts that remain dissolved in it. As the magma nears the surface, cools and evaporates, these salts finally crystallize out also. A great variety of rocksthe "igneous rocks"are formed in this process.

A very active study of them is showing that they are in many ways the most important defects that a crystal has. The presence of dislocations in the component crystals of metals explains why the metals can be bent and pounded and rolled and drawn into different shapes without breaking. Dislocations even explain why some crystals grow when previous theories said that those crystals should not grow at all. If you want to pursue that fascinating subject, several articles and a book mentioned in the bibliography will help you.

In the case of sodium chloride (NaCl), the acid would be hydrochloric acid (HCl), and the base would be sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The product, sodium chloride, dissociates into ions in solution and even in its solid form, and all other salts show much the same behavior. The physicist calls the resulting solids ionic crystals. Indeed, he calls any crystal an ionic crystal in which he has reason to believe that the atoms bear net electric charges, as do the atoms in salts. But the physicist's ionic crystals and the chemist's salts are not altogether the same.

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Crystals and Crystal Growing by Alan Holden


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