By Jack C. Richards
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At this stage, the analyst has to decide what to compare with what. Linguistic features of the two languages are compared on three levels: form, meaning, and distribution of forms. It needs to be pointed out that in some texts companson and juxtaposition have been treated as two distinct steps, but as Yarmohammadi (2009) has noted, trying to keep them separate " imposes some sort of redundancy and unnaturalness on the statements" (p. 36). 4. Prediction Having described and compared certain features across languages, the analyst can make predictions about difficulties learners may face in acquiring the second language.
This principle works in the n1ajority of cases; however, some languages may require the use of alternative models for their description. Of course, this is a controversial theoretical issue and it is beyond the scope of the present textbook. For further details, interested readers can consult James ( 1980, Chapter 4). 3. Comparison When the description of subsystems of the two languages is complete the job of the analyst is to compare and contrast the two systems by juxtaposing features of the two languages in order to find similarities and differences between them.
Description After the selection of certain linguistic items, structures or rules, the linguist or language teacher, should explicitly describe the two languages in question. Scientific description has been the core of Chapter I - Fundamental Issues in Contrasth•e Analysis 15 contrastive analysis and the proponents of this theory have always put emphasis on parallel description of the two languages. By parallel description it is implied that the two languages should be described through the same linguistic model or framework.
Interchange 1 by Jack C. Richards