By Silvio Borner
About 10 years in the past, the 1st very small steps in the direction of this ebook have been taken. the place to begin used to be marked through the deep and surprising droop of the Swiss economic system within the mid-seventies: a hindrance wiping out approximately 10 percent issues of GNP and employment inside of simply years. To this author, it used to be transparent from the start that neither the exogenous shocks nor the struc tural alterations have been in reality exogenous or structural. They got and sha ped by way of international forces. They have been half and parcel of capitalist improvement. there's no different hugely constructed kingdom on the planet that's so ex tremely and integrally uncovered to world-wide currents of economic and monetary alterations as Switzerland. The measure and dimensions of open ness ofthe Swiss economic system resulted in the formula of our study process for learning the internationalization of the economic system, an issue theoretically and politically constructed during this booklet. Empirical facts pertains to our examine of Swiss event. a well known Swiss-American economist provided the next com ment on our earlier paintings at the internationalization of undefined: "You are first-class in elevating fascinating questions ..." What was once absolutely intended as a feedback was once obtained as a praise. an excessive amount of expertise and too many learn efforts are, for my part, wasted through study courses which position strategy over substance. This unlucky improvement in our career has already vastly diminished the social software of economists.
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Extra resources for Internationalization of Industry: An Assessment in the Light of a Small Open Economy (Switzerland)
Traditional technological and growth-oriented approaches to the future find themselves on a course of collision with changing social and cultural values and needs - people-oriented and environment-oriented values. The classical strategies of hardware exports and direct investment are being increasingly confronted by strong nationalistic measures to protect, control, and structure economic activities. The phase of intra-industrial interpenetration (1950-1970) produced relatively weak pressures for structural adjustment.
Contractual Cooperation 5. Joint Ventures 6. Group Investment 1. Barter 2. Long-Tenn Commercial Framework Agreements 3. Counterdelivery 4. Offset 5. Junktim 6. Turnkey 7. 1 Licensing Licensing permits a plant or a firm to carry out an "activity" - the rights to which are in fact owned by another firm. In the case of industrial licensing this means that a firm can purchase the right to use know-how and/or trademarks developed and owned by a firm which holds a de facto or de jure monopoly over both.
Goods and services are exchanged internationally among the units of one firm. Strategic bundling of resources in non-market packaging leads to an 'invisible' international transfer of resources. Structural adjustment and the innovation process take place primarily inside the firm. Competitiveness has come to be based on 'private' absolute advantages internal to the firm. National resources and traditional indicators of competitiveness at the level of the branch or 28 product group have been rendered virtually useless by this change in the form of economic competition, at least in the realm of knowledge and/or capital intensive manufacturing activities.
Internationalization of Industry: An Assessment in the Light of a Small Open Economy (Switzerland) by Silvio Borner