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Extra resources for On a new Determination of the Lengths of Waves of Light and on a Method of determining by Optics the Traslatory Motion of the Solar System
Unfortunately, this method is flawed because starlight can be absorbed and scattered by intervening matter, which biases the number counts of stars. One must take into account observational biases in order to draw reliable conclusions from survey data. Like Galileo, Herschel earned a pension from the government by pleasing the king with one of his discoveries. Herschel had earned his living as a musician before turning to astronomy. He was able to turn full-time to astronomy, thanks to a pension awarded him by King George III.
His results contradicted the proper motion results of van Maanen! Both thought the spirals were rotating, but they disagreed about the rotation direction. We shall discuss these rotational velocities in more detail when we discuss the nature of dark matter in the universe. Slipher achieved worldwide fame for his spectrographic observations of the nebulae and eventually became director of Lowell Observatory. It was under his directorship that the planet Pluto was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh.
In the 1930s it was realized that nuclear reactions provided the energy to fuel the stars. Might it not be possible that nuclear reactions had taken place in the early universe when temperatures reached millions of degrees? In 1948, George Gamow (1904–1968), a Russian physicist working in the United States, considered this hypothesis. He predicted that if a hot Big Bang had indeed taken place, some radiation left over from the intense heat of the early universe should be present today. It was not until 1965 that this radiation was discovered by scientists who were not trying to test this theory at all.
On a new Determination of the Lengths of Waves of Light and on a Method of determining by Optics the Traslatory Motion of the Solar System by Angstrom