By Elizabeth Cropper

Pontormo’s Halberdier has lengthy been arguable. How did students come to spot the sitter as Duke Cosimo de’ Medici and why is that this open to doubt? Who was once Francesco Guardi? What used to be the siege of Florence, and will Pontormo have made this compelling portrait in the course of that point of deprivation and political tumult? In a desirable piece of historic detective paintings, Elizabeth Cropper investigates those questions and uncovers new proof for interpretation. She additionally analyzes the portrait’s dating to different works by way of Pontormo, explores the significance for Pontormo of Donatello, Michelangelo, and Andrea del Sarto, and appears into Bronzino’s reference to the portrait. Pontormo: Portrait of a Halberdier is a part of the Getty Museum stories on artwork sequence, that's designed to introduce person works of art or small teams of similar works to a vast public with an curiosity within the heritage of artwork. every one monograph is written via a number one student and contours an in depth dialogue of its topic in addition to an in depth research of the wider ancient and cultural context within which the paintings used to be created. desk of Contents advent A Portrait of Duke Cosimo whilst He was once younger? A Portrait of Francesco Guardi? Afterword Notes Bibliography family tree of the Guardi kinfolk Acknowledgments concerning the writer Elizabeth Cropper is professor of paintings historical past at John Hopkins collage. She has additionally been Slade Professor of paintings at Cambridge college and Andrew W. Mellon Professor on the middle for complicated examine within the visible Arts on the nationwide Gallery in Washington, D.C. She lately coauthored, with Charles Dempsey, Nicolas Poussin: Friendship and the affection of portray.

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Pontormo’s Halberdier has lengthy been arguable. How did students come to spot the sitter as Duke Cosimo de’ Medici and why is that this open to doubt? Who used to be Francesco Guardi? What was once the siege of Florence, and will Pontormo have made this compelling portrait in the course of that point of deprivation and political tumult?

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In times of civil war family names are not certain indicators of political commitment. 44 Many of these young men—including Capponi's own two sons; his enemy Pierfilippo Pandolfini; Bartolommeo Cavalcanti, who had given the most stirring of orations to the militia; and Girolamo Benevieni, still dedicated to the memory of Savonarola—had strong political and financial reasons to want to make peace with the Medici. Like their fathers they had come to see that the preservation of the city required an end to the war as matters took increasingly dangerous turns for the patriciate.

28 Politically, the siege did not come to an end until July 1531, when Alessandro de' Medici (thought to be the illegitimate son of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino; but probably fathered by Giulio de' Medici, who was now Pope Clement vn) made his triumphal entry into the city under the protection of Emperor Charles v. The elected government, or Signoria, was abolished in 1532, and Florence was given by notarial deed to Alessandro as duke of the Florentine republic. When the arrogant and profligate Alessandro was murdered by his cousin Lorenzo (called "Lorenzaccio") on the eve of the feast of the Magi in 1537, a group of citizens gathered to discuss a return to more popular government.

Sangallo instead acceded to the pope's desire to defend San Miniato and began constructing a series of modern angle-bastions between San Miniato and Giramonte, coordinating them with another bastion built at the Porta San Giorgio to the west. He pulled down the medieval towers at the various gates, seeing how vulnerable these were to artillery. On the expulsion of the Medici in 1527, Sangallo would turn to designing the imperialist attack. At this point the new government of the city sought advice from Michelangelo, and the defense of San Miniato and Giramonte immediately became an issue.

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Pontormo Portrait of a Halberdier by Elizabeth Cropper


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