By D. Padmalal
This publication addresses many of the environmental affects of sand mining from small rivers the issues and options addressed during this ebook are appropriate to all rivers that drain via densely populated tropical coasts present process swift monetary development. Many rivers on the planet are tremendously being altered to degrees usually past their traditional resilience strength. one of the sorts of human interventions, mining of sand and gravel is the main disastrous one, because the task threatens the very lifestyles of river atmosphere. a greater figuring out of sand price range is important if the issues of river and coastal environments are to be solved.
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Extra info for Sand Mining: Environmental Impacts and Selected Case Studies
In many rivers of the world, mining of sand from terraces is also very common. 3 Methods of Sand Extraction A variety of methods are adopted for alluvial sand extraction. Kondolf et al. (2002) described several methods for the extraction of sand from the active channels and floodplain/terraces of riverine environments. 2) has been carried out by the following methods: (a) Bar scalping or skimming Bar scalping or skimming is the extraction of river bed materials, especially sand and gravel, from the top of the bars.
Landscape Urban Plann 28:225–243 Kondolf GM (1994b) Environmental planning in the regulation and management of instream gravel mining in California. Landscape Urban Plann 29:185–199 Kondolf GM (1997) Hungry water: effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels. Environ Manage 21:533–551 Kondolf GM, Smeltzer M, Kimball L (2002) Freshwater gravel mining and dredging issues. Report prepared for Washington department of fish and wildlife, Washington Department of Ecology and Washington Department of Transportation, p 122 30 3 River Sand Mining and Mining Methods Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S, Sreeja R (2008) Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India.
Springer, New York, p 560 Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (1998). River ecology and management in the Pacific coastal ecoregion. In: Naiman RJ, Bilby RE (eds) River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion, Springer, New York, p 1–22 Naiman RJ, Magnuson JJ, Mc Knight DM, Stanford JA (1995) The fresh water imperative. Island Press, Washington DC, USA, p 165 Nanson GC, Croke JC (1992) A genetic classification of floodplains. In: Brakenridge GR, Hagedorn J (eds) Floodplain evolution, geomorphology, p 459–486 Newbold JD, Elwood JW, O’Neill RV, VanWinkle W (1981) Measuring nutrient spiraling in streams.
Sand Mining: Environmental Impacts and Selected Case Studies by D. Padmalal